The French and Spanish societies were what one of the texts I teach from calls "frontiers of inclusion" while the British society was a "frontier of exclusion. Neither the French nor the Spanish brought many colonists In general, there was a difference between the way that the Native Americans were treated by the French and the Spanish on the one hand and by the British on the other.
At this moment there are more than three millions of people on the relief works, and, as time goes on, their numbers may be considerably increased. The Government of India is struggling manfully with the disaster, and has declared itself responsible for the preservation of the lives of its subjects.
As, however, it is only those whose attention has been especially directed to the subject that can have an adequate conception of the stupendous task which Lord Elgin and his colleagues have undertaken, it will be best to begin this paper by indicating its nature and extent.
India may be described as an equilateral triangle, with a superficies of 1, square miles, having the Himalayas for its base. About half way between its northern and southern extremeties, the northern watershed of the Narbada on the west, and that of the Mahanadi on the east, separate the regions known as the Deccan, the Carnatic and Golconda, from the riverine systems of Upper India.
The Deccan is a high plateau, with VOL. The parts of India northward of the Narbada are for the most part occupied by the Gangetic plains and the valleys of the Indus and its four tributaries.
The area referred to com- prises an empire equal in size, if Russia be excluded, to the entire continent of Europe. Its inhabitants now amount to about millions of souls, that is to a fifth part of the human race, and to double the population of the Roman Empire during its most flourishing epoch.
These multitudes are subdivided into a large number of distinct States and Nationalities, professing various religious, separated from each other by discordant social usages, and speaking different languages. Of the latter, excluding mere dialects, there are more than a hundred, eighteen being each of them the mother tongue of upwards of a million persons.
Amongst these numerous communities may be observed, in active operation, examples of all the various stages of development through which mankind has passed from the prehistoric ages PS the present day.
Let us now glance at the executive and legislative machinery through which these latter functions are discharged. At the top of the pyramid stands the Viceroy, who is immediately and indi- vidually responsible to Great Britain for everything that is done in India. He is assisted by an Executive Council of six persons; but, though profiting by their co-operation, and in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred acting in general harmony with their opinions, he cannot, if anything goes wrong, shelter himself be- hind theirauthority, for he is entrusted with the right of over- ruling their decisions.
Each member of the Council, for the sake of administrative convenience, is specially connected with one or other of the following departments: These persons thus occupy something akin to the position of Secretaries of State in European Governments, with, however, a very important consti- tutional difference, upon which it is not now necessary to enlarge.
The Viceroys Legislative Council consists of the Executive Council above described, plus sixteen additional members, of whom seven are native gentlemen of high rank and eminence. Beneath the Governor-General stand the Governors of Madras and Bombay each of them presiding over an imperium in im- periothree Lieutenant-Governors, and a certain number of Chief Commissioners, all of whom within their respective spheres exercise a considerable amount of independent authority.
The administrative unit throughout British India is the District, at the head of which is an executive officer called either the Col- lector or the Deputy Commissioner, who is responsible to the Governor of the Province.
The instrumentality through which all these high executive officers conduct their administration is what is popularly known as the Indian Covenanted Civil Service, which is recruited through the medium of a very severe competi- tive examination held in England. That such a task should be adequately and successfully performed by the handful of English officials thus scattered and lost amid the multitudes that have been so strangely agglomerated into a unified empire under an alien sceptre, is one of the miracles of modern times.
Nor can any one contemplate the situation thus created without an oppressive sense of the gravity of the problems, both political and social, to which it must inevitably give rise. A hot controversy is perpetually raging as to whether India is to be regarded as a well-to-do or as a miserably impoverished country.
No country where agriculture is not largely supple- mented by manufacturing industries and commercial enterprise, or by ample stores of mineral wealth, can ever accumulate great riches, and 80 per cent.
On the other hand, as the result of careful and minute enquiries into the conditioA of the people, conducted over a series of years, it seems pretty certain that the average Indian land-holder, trader, ryot, and handicraftsman is better off than he was thirty years ago, consumes more sugar, more salt, more tobacco; enjoys a better house and more imported luxuries; and has replaced his coarse pottery by brass utensils, and is both better clad and better fed than his grandfather.
Nor is the reason of this condition of affairs far to seek. The agricultural population of India is very unequally distributed over the regions susceptible of cultivation. From various causes, born of their traditional beliefs, their social in- stincts, their family and tribal affinities, the tendency of the rural classes is to agglomerate, and not to disperse; and the heaping up of these masses upon minute and inadequate areas is stimulated by the prodigious rate at which the population mul- tiplies.
The tenancies are proportionately minute.Citizenship and History: Historiographic Approaches to Citizenship 17 Citizenship and Social History The volume of the “International Review of Social History” edited by C.
Tilly under the title of Citizenship, Identity and Social History48 constitutes a major effort to re-examine the concepts of citizenship and identity from the point of. The religion of France is the religion of Spain.
The enemies of the French Republic sided with the monarchy. But this can be said without fear of contradiction, that those who govern France stood the friends of our Republic, and that our enemies in France were also the enemies of the French Govern- ment.
far to north and west of the red. Feb 07, · Compare and contrast the colonization styles of England, France, and Spain.? How did they approach colonizatiion(in the New World, America) differently.
and i'm much more comfortable in that area than in dealing with french and spanish styles: But there are some key words (ideas) you should pay attention to.
Compare and Status: Resolved. Lenin.
the us itself pushed for radical land reforms in Cold War frontier states like Japan. the economic gulf between 11 Contra Piketty At the same time.
helped to constrain the power of capital everywhere. as well as the example and military might of the Soviet Union. Define a frontier of inclusion. Course: History Reference No.: EM between the Old World and the New World in the centuries following the European invasion of leslutinsduphoenix.coms some of the effects these exchanges had on the course of modern history.
/5(K). See Frontier Dispute (Benin/Niger), Judgment, ICJ Rep , 90 and Application for Revision of the Judgment of 11 September in the Case Concerning Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador v Honduras), Judgment, ICJ Rep ,