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About the author Introduction Weather modification is the effort of man to change naturally occurring weather, for the benefit of someone.
The best-known kind of weather modification is cloud seeding, with the goal of producing rain or snow, suppressing hail which can ruin cropsor weakening hurricanes.
This essay is intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not advice for your specific problem. In NovemberDr. Vonnegut choose AgI crystals because there is nearly the same distance between molecules in the crystal lattice for both ice and AgI, which makes AgI the optimum material to nucleate ice.
Usually, progress is made by a series of small improvements on past practices, as a result of bumbling and guesswork. Vonnegut not only discovered the ice-nucleating properties of AgI, but he also invented a practical way of generating tiny AgI particles to serve as nuclei for ice crystals.
Vonnegut dissolved a mixture of AgI and another iodide in acetone, sprayed the solution through a nozzle to make droplets, then burned the droplets. More than fifty years later, Vonnegut's method continues to be the common way to seed clouds.
Release of AgI into an existing supercooled cloud i. The ice crystals nucleated by the AgI will grow and local water droplets will shrink.
The latent heat released by converting water vapor or liquid water to ice will increase vertical air motion inside the cloud and aid the convective growth of the cloud.
Raindrops or snowflakes will grow larger by falling through a taller cloud.
Also, moist air from evaporated moisture in the soil will be sucked into the base of the cloud by convection i. Depending on the temperature and humidity below the cloud, the snow may change to rain, or even evaporate, before reaching the ground.
AgI is the most common ice nucleus used in cloud seeding, but it is not the only material used.
These new droplets fall and either collide or coalesce with other droplets, to form rain drops. Seeding clouds with either a water spray or hygroscopic materials requires dumping a large mass e.
Such use of hygroscopic materials are condensation nuclei, not ice nuclei.
While the physics differs in cloud seeding with ice nuclei and with condensation nuclei, both seeding methods have the same legal issues. There were at least three earlier scientific attempts to modify weather: Emory Leon Chaffee at Harvard University dispensed charged sand from an airplane duringto attempt to modify weather.
Veraart in dropped dry ice into clouds, in an attempt to modify weather. His technique and results were apparently published only in his book, which was in the Dutch language. Houghton of MIT sprayed hygroscopic solutions into fogs in to dissipate the fog.
None of these early scientists had adequate financial support for their research, so society was unable to benefit from their ideas.
Looking back in time, it is clear that it is not enough to have a good idea or theoretical scientific insight into a problem. One must also have the financial resources to pay both salaries and expenses of scientists with ideas and insight. General Electric provided such resources to Langmuir and Vonnegut, and General Electric management was able to quickly arrange contracts with the U.
Early History of Weather Modification at General Electric There was concern about legal liability from the earliest days of cloud seeding. At the time of his discovery, Dr. Vonnegut worked in the research laboratory of Dr.
Their initial work on cloud seeding was funded by the Company, not the U. Havens, Jiusto, Vonnegut,pp. It was recognized that the possibility of liability for damage from cloud-seeding experiments was a very worrisome hazard in this new form of cloud experimentation.
Since such a threat to the share owner's money would not be balanced by any known gain to the Company's products or business, there was a great reluctance to incur risks of uncertain but potentially great magnitude.
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