Identify five agents of socialization. Describe positive and negative aspects of the socialization these agents produce. Several institutional and other sources of socialization exist and are called agents of socialization.
It has been suggested that social inequality is a feature of all human societies Haralambos and Holbornp. Sociologists have identified a number of different forms of stratification systems existing in other societies or historic periods, for example, the caste system in traditional India, slavery and feudalism Bilton et alpp.
From a study of other systems it is clear that not all systems of stratification are organised in terms of social class; the caste system for example was stratified in terms of status.
Bilton et alp. For Marx there were two distinct classes in society; the capitalist class, who own the means of production, and the working class, who own only their labour power which they sell to the capitalist class, or bourgeoisie, in return for wages.
Marx believed that the relationship between the bourgeoisie and the working class was one of exploitation; the bourgeoisie exploit the working class as the wages workers receive for their labour is a fraction of the market value of the products they produce.
Marx felt that the conflicts of interest inherent in capitalist societies would eventually lead to its downfall and to the emergence of a communist society.
He believed that once the working class realised the true nature of their exploitation Socialization and social stratification essay would rise up and overthrow capitalism. Another classic sociologist, Max Weber, agreed with Marx that social classes develop when individuals compete in a market economy for economic resources; however he saw other factors as equally important in understanding class composition and divisions in society.
Weber identified four separate classes in capitalist society; the propertied upper class, the propertyless white-collar workers, the petty bourgeoisie and the manual working class Haralambos and Holbornp. For Weber, as Haralambos and Holbornp. Different occupations offer different skills, and skills that are highly valued or in demand will lead to greater rewards.
In this way, social class may be determined by occupation and skills, as opposed to the relationship of individuals and groups to the means of production, because economic rewards affect lifestyle and life chances.
Weber also saw as important in the formation of social groups the concepts of status and parties.
Status and party groups may or may not belong to, or serve the interests of, the same social class. This idea is obviously in contrast to the ideas of Marx, who argued that the working class would one day recognise their shared situation of inequality and oppression and come together as a homogeneous group to overthrow the forces of capitalism.
Marxists argue that Weber placed too much emphasis on market position, neglecting the most important class division between the capitalists and the working class. Marxists have also argued that status divisions are closely linked to class divisions, that is, the class in possession of the greatest proportion of property and wealth will necessarily also possess greater status and power.
Despite these criticisms, the theories of Marx and Weber have proved an influential basis for most modern sociological theories of class. The problems inherent in identifying the number of different social classes in modern society are many and varied and include broad questions of ontology, as well as detailed ones of definitions and boundaries.
Occupation is the most common indicator of social class used in present times, but scales vary as to the number of classes identified and the definitions of each class in terms of occupations.
Most scales, however, recognise an upper, middle and working class. The underclass is comprised of individuals who are unemployed, or have never worked or who have a particularly weak position in the labour market.
Members of this class include single parents and ethnic minorities, but Runciman argued that it was not their status that placed them in this class but their reliance on state benefits.
In general, however, most sociologists have tended to draw on one or other approach and these sociologists are referred to as neo-Marxists or neo-Weberians. Neo-Weberians such as David Lockwood, however, challenge this view.Several institutional and other sources of socialization exist and are called agents of socialization.
The first of these, the family, is certainly the most important agent of socialization for infants and young children. Chapter 8: Social Stratification Systems of Stratification; Explaining Stratification; Social Class in the. Socialization and Social Stratification Essay - Socialisation is a learning process where people learn and adapt to the appropriate and accepted values, attitudes and behaviours of .
Social stratification papers From the home, to the workplace, to the classroom, and almost everywhere you look you see class differences.
Even if you’re and idealist the truth is that economic differences have a major impact on American society. Social stratification lies at the core of society and of the discipline of sociology.
Social inequality is a fundamental aspect of virtually all social processes, and a person's position in the stratification system is the most consistent predictor of his or her behavior, attitudes, and life chances/5(10).
Social inequality and social stratification, according to this view, lead to a meritocracy based on ability (Crossman, ). This meritocracy is based on personal merit, meaning your place in society is earned rather than given. Socialization and Social Stratification Essay - Socialisation is a learning process where people learn and adapt to the appropriate and accepted values, attitudes and behaviours of their society.
Nevertheless, separate groups exist within societies for reasons including ethnicity, class and culture and these can bring their own set of ‘norms’.