The history of mambassa

Alan Lomax, a music man in the most democratic sense, was the first to record musicians like Woody Guthrie, Muddy Waters and Leadbelly.

The history of mambassa

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Presbyterian delegation shares insight from DR Congo A team of 12 Presbyterians recently traveled to Goma, on the eastern border of the Democratic Republic of Congo, to take part in a day World Mission travel-study seminar.

The pilgrimage of hope and solidarity is designed to promote understanding of the impact of conflict and sexual violence in the volatile region and to enable Presbyterians—who are members of the We Will Speak Out US coalition—to learn best practices for accompanying the Church of Christ in Congo in ministering to survivors of violence.

Members of the team shared their travel journals with the Presbyterian Church U. Photo by Doug Tilton As our time together in Goma drew to a close today, we met with women leaders of the Eglise du Christ au Congo ECC and its member denominations to reflect on what we had learned and to discuss how we might continue to accompany each other to address sexual violence and to promote respect for human dignity.

Many of the women who hosted us over the past 10 days took part in the discussion, including Rev. Debbie Braaksma reminded us that in her presentation to the group on day two, Mama Wivine had cited two key roles for the DFF in the province: Debbie Braaksma and Rev. Photo by Christi Boyd In the course of the conversation, the Congolese women identified six areas of ministry where they felt a need for training to develop crucial skills in this regard: Trauma healing aimed specifically at children; Mediation and negotiation, particularly to address rejection of rape survivors by their husbands; Equipping survivors of sexual trauma to earn income and develop sustainable livelihoods; Sensitizing men on sexual violence and the need to support survivors; Addressing impunity for perpetrators of violence; and Civic education for effective democratic participation including voter education.

The women also noted that the DRC now has a national strategy to fight sexual violence, so they were eager to consider how any new initiatives might work in concert with this larger plan. In particular, they felt it would be helpful to identify actions that Presbyterians in the United States could take to demonstrate solidarity with the advocacy efforts of Congolese partners.

Good communication was seen as a catalyst to future cooperation, and the participants agreed to some basic principles to facilitate communication. We concluded our time together with worship, during which Revs.

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We were blessed and humbled to be able to share this experience with our Congolese sisters, a moving conclusion to ten intense days of learning and pilgrimage that have challenged us to redouble our efforts to halt sexual violence and seek justice for the survivors of violence.

Photo by Doug Tilton Today, our delegation had an opportunity to learn more about the links between mining, conflict and oppression. Whether we know it or not, many of us take a little bit of the eastern Congo with us wherever we go. Modern electronic devices such as cellphones, tablets and laptops rely on metals such as tin, tungsten, tantalum and even gold.

The revenues earned from these activities have helped to finance the activities of rebel troops and government forces alike and have thus contributed to the duration and intensity of a conflict in which sexual violence has routinely been used as a weapon of war.

Congress enacted extensive economic reforms in 2,page legislation known as the Dodd-Frank Act. Included in this was a small passage, Sectionthat required companies to identify and disclose whether the minerals used in their products were sourced from the DRC or its neighboring countries.

On the wall in the background, a poster urges people to report human rights and safety violations such as the presence of troops, miners working alone underground, forced or child labour, etc.

Photo by Doug Tilton To understand the implementation of these traceability mechanisms, we traveled nearly three hours northwest of Goma to Rubaya.

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Its bustling, dusty streets felt a bit like an old Gold Rush town—except that instead of mules, motorbike taxis zipped up and down the main road, weaving alarmingly through the crowds.

Fidel also serves as consultant to the U. We had hoped to be able to visit an actual mine; unfortunately, the mine owner refused to grant us access, in spite of the fact that Fidel had secured the necessary approval from a dizzying array of Congolese officials.

After presenting ourselves to the local authorities, we made our way to the Rubaya Trading Center, which was built with USAID support to promote transparency and accountability in the mineral trade and opened in April The Rubaya Trading Center serves the 17 mines certified as conflict-free in its catchment area, but Fidel told us that there are well over other, non-certified sites in the area.

Of the estimated 5, artisanal mines in East Congo, only have been certified conflict-free thus far.

The history of mambassa

The tag confirms how much raw ore the miner has dug, so that it may be sold at the trading center. Once there, the minerals are weighed and a purchase price determined, after which a Ministry of Mines agent retags the bag and the transaction is logged.

The tags must stay with the ore until it reached the end user to ensure traceability, so even if multiple bags are consolidated into a drum for shipping, the tags from the various sacks must stay with the drum. The impact that the Dodd-Frank Act has had on artisanal miners has been hotly debated.

Fidel, on the other hand, noted that others, including his organization, saw this as a boycott of Congolese minerals by electronics firms resisting the due diligence requirements of In the end, detractors were less upset by what legislation contained than by what it omitted: Rubaya exudes the energy and bustle of a boom town.

Photo by Doug Tilton Outside, on the steps of the center, we spoke informally to one of the artisanal miners, Habumugosha Mundere.Amounts shown in italicized text are for items listed in currency other than Singapore dollars and are approximate conversions to Singapore dollars based upon Bloomberg's conversion rates.

This history of violence has led to such great fear of the “other” ethnic group that there is no possibility of coexistence. The Tutsi refuse to give up control of the army because they see it as a form of security against genocide.

EDITORIAL. In the Central African Republic (CAR) President Bozizé was overthrown by the Seleka rebel coalition, after the capital Bangui was captured last Sunday. In the clashes at least 13 South African soldiers defending the city were killed.

The history of mambassa

The ousted president fled’s leader, Michel Djotodia, declared himself president, suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament.

International criminal court Presented by May Zin & Stanley Gorrie Date of establishment 17th of July, Location The Hague, Netherlands Membership requirements. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a nominally centralized republic with a population of approximately 68 million.

The president and the lower house of parliament (National Assembly) are popularly elected; the members of the upper house (the Senate) are chosen by provincial assemblies. Pages in category "Albums beginning with M" The following pages are in this category, out of total.

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21 - 27 March - IPIS